Current U.S. Student

United States citizens who are currently enrolled in undergraduate or graduate degree programs are eligible to apply. All applicants enrolled in U.S institutions must apply through their home campuses. Find the Fulbright Program Adviser on your campus.

If you are an undergraduate student, you are eligible to apply in the fall of your senior year.  If you are a graduate student, you are eligible as long as you will not have a PhD degree by the application deadline.

U.S. Citizen but not a Student

If you are a U.S. citizen, hold a bachelor’s degree, and do not have a PhD degree, then you are eligible to apply. Non-enrolled applicant should have relatively limited professional experience in the fields (typically 7 years or less) in which they are applying. Candidates with more experience should consider applying for the Fulbright Scholar Program.
Please review the program summary for the country where you would like to apply.

Artist

The Fulbright U.S. Student Program welcomes applications in the creative and performing arts. Arts candidates for the U.S. Student Program should have relatively limited professional experience in the fields (typically 5 years or less) in which they are applying. Artists with more experience should consider applying for the Fulbright Scholar Program.

Creative & Performing Arts projects fall under the Study/Research grant category and are available in all countries where Study/Research grants are offered. 

FPA

Placeholder

U.S. Professor

If you are a U.S. citizen and a professor at a U.S. institution and are interested in applying for a Fulbright Scholar Award, you will need to apply through CIES.

Non U.S. Citizens

If you are a non-U.S. citizen interested in applying for a Fulbright Award to the United States, you will need to apply through the Fulbright Commission or U.S. Embassy in your home country. Find out more information on the Fulbright Visiting Scholar or Student Program.

Fulbright-National Geographic Storytelling Fellowship Application Components

Fulbright-National Geographic competition is currently on hold.
Updated information for the 2020-2021 grant year is forthcoming, please check back.

All applicants must complete and submit an application via the Fulbright Online Application. The online application will allow you to enter data, upload documents, and register your recommenders and foreign language evaluators. The following items comprise the components of the Fulbright-National Geographic application:

 

Biographical Data

The first pages of the application ask for basic personal information, such as name, contact information, birth date, etc. Applicants must provide details of academic background, occupational experience, extracurricular activities, publications, and previous foreign experience. Here, on the Program Information page, applicants must include a project title and summary of the Statement of Grant Purpose, along with a brief explanation of future plans upon completion of the award and return to the U.S. You must indicate that you are applying for the “Fulbright-National Geographic Fellowship” on the Preliminary Information page.

  • Award Name: Be sure to select “Fulbright-National Geographic Fellowship” on the Preliminary Questions page. Failure to indicate an Award Type may disqualify your application from consideration for the award.
  • Grant Category: Be sure to select “Study/Research” in the Award Type field on the Award Information page. Then select the Grant Field of Study that relates to the theme or topic connected to your proposed project on the Program Information page.
  • Complete all required fields: You should take care to accurately complete all of the required fields in this section.
  • Use proper capitalization and punctuation: This is a formal grant application and you are advised to follow the English language rules on capitalization and punctuation.
Provide an informative project title and summary: These sections are a quick reference for screening committees and other reviewers. They should be able to determine the basic who, what, when, where, why and how of your project by reading this summary. The project title should be informative and reference the National Geographic Theme to which you are applying as well.
Statement of Grant Purpose

This document of no more than three (3) pages should outline who, what, when, where, why, and how of your Fulbright project proposal. Developing a strong, feasible and compelling project proposal is the most important aspect of a successful Fulbright application. This aspect of your application is reviewed not only for the content that it conveys, but also as the various review committees’ first impression of your writing style and ability as a storyteller to convey a story about the Fellowship that you envision carrying out.

Candidates for the Fulbright-National Geographic Storytelling Fellowship should propose projects that focus on storytelling related to one or more of the eligible themes (listed below). Storytellers are expected to explore their chosen theme through research, observation, analysis and interviews, and relate their findings on a dedicated National Geographic blog utilizing one or a combination of storytelling tools and media, which may include text, photography, video, audio, graphic illustrations, and/or social media. Projects may be based in in one, two, or three countries.

The National Geographic Society believes in the power of science, exploration, education and storytelling to change the world.  The broad themes of this year’s competition fall under National Geographic's three lenses: The Human Journey, Our Changing Planet, and Wildlife& Wild Places.

The Statement of Grant Purpose must include:

  • A detailed project description within one or more of the approved themes;
  • A description of methods of storytelling that will be used for the purpose of posting on the National Geographic blog; and
  • A detailed timeline that clearly describes activities and proposed destinations within all host country or countries.

The project description should be creative, feasible, well-written, and innovative. Applicants should describe in their Statement of Grant Purpose the story, problem or set of questions they will set out to understand or answer as well as the methods and tools (text, photography, video, audio, graphic illustrations, and/or social media) that will be used to present the story on the National Geographic blog. Also, applicants should briefly address why the story should be told in their proposed format. Proposals should describe the applicant’s background knowledge or experience working on the proposed issue or in the proposed destinations as well as any skills (i.e. languages), academic or professional contacts, or other resources the applicant may have or expect to leverage.

All proposals should make a strong case for the chosen topic and proposed country/countries (i.e. Why is this story important? Is this story underreported? Is this story timely? Are there unique or compelling factors that characterize the environment surrounding this topic in all proposed countries?). All proposals should make a strong argument for completion of the project in the proposed host country or countries to which the applicant proposes to travel.  While applications for two or three countries are allowed, proposed projects for more than one country must provide a detailed project description and meet a high standard in each country.  Applicants must clearly outline their skills which would allow them to effectively and efficiently launch into their grant activities upon arrival in each country. In the proposal, applicants must provide a clear plan for how they propose to successfully carry out their grant in each country, including securing affiliations, providing a plan for settling into each country which allows for sufficient time to make contacts, do research, carry out the aspects of their project effectively.  For multi-country proposals, countries should be strategically selected to show comparative and/or contrasting parts of a story or innovations in multiple countries.

In the Statement of Grant Purpose, applicants should address how they will benefit from the mentorship provided by National Geographic staff.   National Geographic Society mentoring draws from a range of experts in many disciplines, including researchers, explorers, regional specialists, and storytellers. The mentoring program for this fellowship is an extended version of the Society's storytelling bootcamp, as part of the dedicated Fulbright Pre-departure Orientation, in which experts in photography, videography, writing, social media, exhibits, and public speaking share best practices and tips for effective communication of complex science. There are also opportunities for consultations with National Geographic's scientists, educators, explorers, photographers, cartographers, writers, and filmmakers.

Applicants should describe how they intend to share and promote their Fulbright experience and stories with audiences, both U.S. and global, during and after their Fulbright grant period abroad. All proposals should indicate a clear commitment to and description of engagement with a community or communities within each host country during the award period as well as any benefit that the local, U.S., and global communities will experience as a result of their participation in this project.

Develop an intellectually-compelling and feasible project: Candidates for the Fulbright-National Geographic Storytelling Fellowship should propose projects that focus on storytelling in one or more of the eligible themes. Storytellers are expected to explore their chosen theme(s) through research, observation, analysis and interviews, and relate their findings on the National Geographic blog.

Address the following points:

  • What do you propose to do?
  • With whom do you propose to work?
  • What is innovative about the project?
  • Who is your proposed audience?
  • What are the specific goals of your story?
  • What is important or globally significant about the project?
  • What contribution will the project make toward the Fulbright goal of promoting cultural exchange and mutual understanding?
  • When will you carry out the project? Include a detailed timeline.
  • Where do you propose to conduct your study or research? Why was this location(s) chosen?
  • Why do you want to undertake this project?
  • Why does the project have to be conducted in the country(ies) of application?
  • How will your project help further your academic or professional development?
  • How will you benefit from the mentorship provided by National Geographic editors?
  • What method of storytelling will be used?
  • How do you intend to share and promote your Fulbright experience and stories with audiences, both U.S. and global, during and after your Fulbright grant period abroad?
  • How will you engage with the host country community?
  • What will Americans and other readers of the blog gain from your story?
  • What are your qualifications for carrying out this project?

Design a feasible project: You must demonstrate that your project is viable, including its content and time frame. Address the following points:

  • How will the culture and politics of the host country(ies) impact the work?
  • Will the resources of the host country(ies) support the project?
  • Confirm you have met the affiliation requirement for the program: Have you developed a connection with a potential adviser/sources in the host country(ies)? Include names, host country institutions, contacts and sources you plan to utilize during your grant program. Indicate the level of contact which has been established.
  • Do you have the requisite background to undertake the proposed project?
  • Address your language skills capacity or, if you do not have local language skills, explain how you will accomplish your goals.
  • If you do not have local language skills, and they are not necessary for your reporting, but the local population communicates in a language that you do not understand, how will you engage the community or carry out your daily activities?
  • Are there any possible feasibility concerns that the project could evoke? If yes, please address.

Proposals for multi-country projects should set forth a strong argument for completion of the project in the proposed host countries to which the applicant proposes to travel.  While applications for two or three countries are allowed, proposed projects for more than one country must provide a detailed project description and meet a high standard in each country.  For multi-country proposals, countries should be strategically selected to show comparative and/or contrasting parts of a story or innovations in multiple countries.  Applicants must clearly outline their skills which would allow them to effectively and efficiently launch into their grant activities upon arrival in each country and address the following points:

  • Why is an exploration of the selected theme in all of these countries important? (i.e. What commonalities or differences do you expect to find.)
  • Why is it important that these commonalities or differences are investigated and reported?
  • What greater significance or impact could the findings have on the global understanding or response to the proposed topic?)
  • Do you have sufficient language skills to successfully complete the project in each country? How will your language proficiency or limitations impact your ability to successfully complete your proposed project?
  • What is your plan for settling into each country to allow for sufficient time to make contacts, do research, carry out the aspects of your project effectively?

Projects should be proposed to be at least three months in each country. Thus,

  • 3 country projects must be 3 consecutive months in each country
  • 2 country projects may be any combination of months per country as long as each country has at least three consecutive months.

Candidates applying through U.S. institutions are urged to consult professors in their major fields or faculty members with experience in the host country, as well as their Fulbright Program Advisers, about the feasibility of their proposed projects. At-Large applicants should consult qualified persons in their fields.

  • Be clear and concise.
  • The individuals reading the proposal want applicants to get to the point about the 'who, what, when, where, why and how' of the project. Avoid discipline-specific jargon.
  • Organize the statement carefully.
  • Don't make reviewers search for information.
  • We urge you to have several people read and critique the Statement of Grant Purpose, including a faculty adviser, a faculty member outside your discipline, a fellow student, and/or a colleague.

Adhere to the proper format.

  • Length is limited to a maximum of three single-spaced pages. Longer statements will not be presented to the screening committee.
  • Do not include any bibliographies, publications, citations, etc., except those that will fit in the three-page limit.
  • Use 1-inch margins and Times New Roman 12-point font.
  • At the top of the first page include:
    • On line 1: Statement of Grant Purpose
    • On line 2: Your Name, Country(ies) of Application, and National Geographic Theme
    • On line 3: Your Project Title as it appears in the Program Information page of the application
  • On the second page of the Statement, enter the same information or just Last Name, Grant Purpose, Page 2.
Affiliation Letter

Fulbrighters undertaking study/research awards affiliate with host country universities or other types of host country organizations. For the Fulbright-National Geographic Storytelling Fellowship, it may be more useful for a project to affiliate with an organization that can provide support in the areas of the topic that you wish to pursue. Local media outlets, National Geographic Offices, and U.S. Embassies or Fulbright Commissions are not options for affiliations. Affiliation requirements vary by country, so before starting the application you should note the specific requirements for the proposed host country (ies). The affiliation letter must be provided for each country that you propose to travel and should come from the institution/individual in each host country with whom you are proposing to work. Each affiliation letter should be printed on the organization’s official letterhead and should be signed by the author. Copies of e-mail correspondence will not be accepted. Affiliation letters must be included at the time the application is due.

Understand the affiliation requirements for the country to which you are applying: Affiliation arrangements vary by country, so you should carefully review the affiliation information provided in the country summary. All grantees must have an affiliation in each of the proposed the host countries.

Countries differ in the kinds of host affiliations that are acceptable. Examples of affiliations include universities, laboratories, libraries, non-governmental organizations, and so on. Pay special attention to the requirement in some countries to attend classes and/or affiliate with academic institutions.

Identify an appropriate affiliation for your project: The affiliation is your proposed host in the country to which you are applying. Fulbrighters have used a number of methods to contact potential hosts and solicit support for their projects. One primary method is to use the contacts and advisers that you already have. Ask current/former professors or employers to put you into contact with appropriate people in the host country. If the proposal relies on conducting interviews with members of the host community, you must have host country contacts that can support the project, provide access to required resources, sources and/or advise you during the grant period. It is your responsibility to identify, contact, and secure an affiliation from a potential advisor.

Potential avenues to identify an appropriate affiliation/host country adviser include:

  • Faculty at your home campus.
  • International students.
  • Visiting Fulbright Professors in the U.S. or U.S. Fulbright Scholars who had grants to your host country. Directories are available here.
  • Internet searches of potential host institutions with your interests, or organizations in the host country that work with issues related to your topic.
  • Other U.S. academics with expertise in the location/subject matter of the proposed project.
  • Contacts from previous experience abroad.
  • Educational Advising sections of Embassies or Consulates of your potential host country.
  • Non-governmental agencies or international organizations dealing with issues related to your project.

Start early: Obtaining an affiliation letter from overseas can be a time-consuming process and sufficient lead time must be given to receive signed affiliation letters before the application deadline.

Request the Affiliation Letter: After identifying the appropriate host institution and the individual at that institution best suited to serve as an adviser for the proposed project, make contact with the potential adviser to determine if he/she is willing to write an affiliation letter. Before requesting the letter, you should provide the author with a copy of the Statement of Grant Purpose. The affiliation letter should indicate the author’s willingness to work with you on the intended project and it should speak to the feasibility and validity of what is being proposed. The letter should also indicate any additional resources or contacts that the adviser can provide to support the work.

  • Affiliation letters must be printed on institutional letterhead and must be signed by the authors. Email correspondence is not acceptable.
  • Scanned versions of the original hard-copy letters with hand-written signatures should be uploaded into the application, and the letter writers can either send the original hard-copy letters or electronic copies to the applicants. IIE will not accept any affiliation letters via email or fax.
  • Since affiliation letters are not confidential, you will upload the letter yourself into the online application system. Affiliation letters written in a foreign language must be translated into English and both the original letters and the English-language translations must be uploaded into the application.
  • Instructions on uploading letters of affiliation are available in the online application system.
Resume and Digital Storytelling Portfolio

Applications must include a current, one-page resume. In addition to a resume, applications must also include a storytelling portfolio which consists of work samples, a portfolio narrative and self-assessment of specific skills related to digital storytelling (strict two-page limit for portfolio narrative and self-assessment). The portfolio must include URLs and hyperlinks to samples of your multimedia work or other examples of storytelling and a portfolio narrative which indicates why each sample was included, the context for developing each sample (i.e., class project…) and your role in the production of each sample. Include work that is relevant to your proposed project and demonstrates your ability to tell a story using multi-media for a blog. All applicants for the Fulbright-National Geographic Storytelling Fellowship must submit two to three examples of their work in digital storytelling or similar medium.

In addition to the portfolio narrative, an applicant’s self-assessment of specific skills related to digital storytelling is required that addresses the applicant’s experience with Audio, Video and Still Photography; any other audio/video/editing software proficiency; a list of Still, Video and Audio equipment the applicant currently uses. In your narrative, indicate which skill is highlighted in each sample.

Applications must include a current, one-page résumé (strict one-page limit). In addition to a resume, applications must also include a storytelling portfolio, portfolio narrative and self-assessment of storytelling skills (strict two-page limit for digital storytelling portfolio and self-assessment).

Resume Format: Single-spaced, 12 point Times New Roman font, 1-inch margins, not more than one page.

Digital Storytelling Portfolio consists of Digital Storytelling Samples, Portfolio Narrative and Self-assessment of storytelling skills: Single-spaced, 12 point Times New Roman font, one-inch margins, not more than two pages. Include examples of your multimedia work through URLs and functioning hyperlinks for each on sites that are not password-protected. You will be responsible for ensuring that your hyperlinks work properly and URLs are correct. In your portfolio narrative, you must answer the following questions:

  • Why did you choose each sample for inclusion?
  • What was the context for developing the sample (i.e., class project)?
  • What was your role in the production of each sample?
  • Which skill does your sample highlight?

Samples provided in your digital portfolio should be related to your proposed project, the media which you intend to use during the grant period and should demonstrate your ability to tell a story using multi-media for a blog.

In addition to the portfolio, you must provide a self-assessment of your specific skills related to digital storytelling. Along with the narrative, respond to the following:

  • Briefly describe your experience with Audio, Video and Still Photography;
  • List any other audio/video/mapping software in which you are proficient; and
  • List Still, Video and Audio equipment you currently use
Personal Statement

This one-page narrative will give the reviewers a picture of the applicant as an individual. It is an opportunity for the applicant to tell the committee more about the trajectory that he/she has followed and what plans he/she has for the future. Whereas the Statement of Grant Purpose focuses on what the applicant will be doing in the host country or countries, the Personal Statement concentrates on how the applicant’s background has influenced his/her development and how that relates to the Fulbright opportunity.

The statement can address personal history, family background, intellectual development, and the educational, professional, or cultural opportunities to which the applicant has or has not been exposed and explain the impact. This should not be a reiteration of facts already listed in the Biographical Data sections or an elaboration of the Statement of Grant Purpose.

Make it Personal: This statement provides you with an opportunity to introduce yourself to the screening committee members on a personal level. The style is up to you, but the content should convey your background and your motivation for applying to the Fulbright-National Geographic Storytelling Fellowship and how this background relates to the proposed project and your future goals.

Do not repeat information from other parts of the application.

Adhere to the following format:

  • Length is limited to a maximum of one single-spaced page. Longer statements will not be presented to the screening committee.
  • Use 1-inch margins and Times New Roman 12-point font.
  • At the top of the page include:
    • On line 1: Personal Statement
    • On line 2: Your Name, Country of Application, and National Geographic Theme
Foreign Language Forms

While foreign language skills are not strictly required for the Fulbright-National Geographic  Storytelling Fellowship, the ability to communicate effectively is critical to success in any country to which Storytellers will travel on this program. In some countries and for some subjects, language skills are necessary to function effectively and successfully complete a project. Applicants with relevant language skills may receive preference in the application review process. Project feasibility assessment will be based, in part, upon applicant language capabilities. In cases in which applicants propose to work in a language that they do not have proficiency, they must address how they will be able to successfully carry out their proposed project, in the project statement of the application.

Language requirements vary by country, so before starting the application you should note the specific requirements of the proposed host country(ies). You must possess the necessary language skills or have a feasible plan to successfully complete the project you are proposing.

For programs where language skills are Strongly Recommended, you must submit both a Language Self Evaluation and a Foreign Language Evaluation Form, which is completed by a professional language teacher. Submission of both forms is mandatory, even if you have advanced skills or native-speaker ability. Failure to submit the forms may affect your eligibility.

For programs where language skills are Recommended or Not Required, if you possess some language skills you should submit both a Language Self Evaluation and a Foreign Language Evaluation Form. It will be advantageous to have your language ability documented, even though it is not required. Remember, even if a country indicates that English will be sufficient for carrying out the proposed project, for purposes of Community Engagement, at least a basic level of language skill should be obtained prior to leaving the United States for the host country.

For programs in countries where English is one of the national languages, you do not need to submit any foreign language forms unless a foreign language is required for your project.

If you have little or no knowledge of the language, you may discuss your plans to study the language prior to beginning a grant in your Statement of Grant Purpose. You should not submit a Language Self Evaluation or a Foreign Language Evaluation.

  • For Commonly-Taught Languages: The Foreign Language Evaluation should be completed by a professional language teacher, preferably a university professor. The language evaluator cannot be related to the applicant.
  • For Less-Commonly-Taught Languages: If a professional language teacher is not readily available, a college-educated native-speaker of the language can be used. The language evaluator cannot be related to the applicant.
  • Provide your language evaluator with the Instructions for Foreign Language Evaluators. You can print these out and discuss them with the person completing the form.
  • Please note that an email address can only be used for one type of online recommendation, that is, either a recommendation or a Foreign Language Evaluation. If you wish to have the same person complete both a recommendation and a Foreign Language Evaluation, the person must use two different email addresses. You will register the person once for the recommendation and once for the Foreign Language Evaluation.
  • In order to register your language evaluator you must respond appropriately to the Language Self-Evaluation in the Fulbright Online Application and register your language evaluator(s) in the Recommenders & Language Evaluators section.
Recommendations

Applicants must submit three recommendation letters as part of the application. The writers should be the three individuals who can best speak to the applicant’s ability to carry out the project being proposed; they should discuss the applicant’s intellectual and professional preparation, and his/her ability to represent the U.S. abroad. Applicants should provide the recommenders with a copy of their Statement of Grant Purpose before requesting the recommendation letter. The recommendation should NOT simply be a character reference, as this will not allow reviewers to assess the applicant’s ability to complete the proposed project. All recommendations must be written in English. If the original recommendation letter is written in a language other than English there must be an official English translation. Because the recommendation letter is confidential the translation cannot be done by the applicant. Both the original recommendation letter and the English-language translation must be uploaded into the Fulbright application.

For the Fulbright-National Geographic Storytelling Fellowship, it is recommended that at least two of these recommenders evaluate the applicant’s ability to produce the type of digital storytelling proposed in the Statement of Grant Purpose.

  • When choosing recommenders, select the three individuals who can best speak to your ability to carry out the proposed project.
  • It is advised that at least two of these recommendations evaluate the applicant’s ability to produce the type of storytelling proposed in the Statement of Grant Purpose.
  • Do not submit character references.
  • Provide recommenders with copies of your Statement of Grant Purpose and your Personal Statement so that they can write well-informed recommendations.
  • Give recommenders at least 3-4 weeks to complete the recommendations.
  • You must register the recommenders in the online application system so that they can upload their recommendations directly into your application.
  • Recommendations must remain confidential, so applicants cannot upload recommendations.
  • Recommendations should be printed on institutional letterhead, signed by the authors, and then uploaded into the online application system.
  • Provide your recommenders with the Instructions for Study/Research Recommendation Writers. You can print these out and discuss them with the person writing the recommendation.
  • If the original recommendation is not written in English an official English translation must be provided. The recommendation is confidential and cannot be translated by the applicant. The English-language translation should be printed on institutional letterhead and must include the name, title, and contact information of the translator, and it must be signed by the translator. Both the original recommendation and the English-language translation must be uploaded into the Fulbright application.

After the recommendation is submitted, it cannot be edited. However, if there is a significant error and the recommender/evaluator agrees to edit a submitted recommendation, follow the instructions provided in the Recommenders & Language Evaluators section of the Fulbright Online Application. Please note that national deadline for submission of references is October 8, 2019 at 5pm Eastern Time.

Applicants can follow the status of the recommendation/evaluation (not initiated, in progress, submitted) from the Recommenders & Language Evaluators section of the application. Additional details on the online submission of recommendations/language evaluations are available in the Recommenders & Language Evaluators section.

Transcripts

The application must include a complete academic record of the applicant’s higher education experience. Transcripts must be received from all undergraduate and graduate institutions from which the applicant received degrees, or studied and received credit for coursework. Specific instructions on the submission of transcripts are provided in the Fulbright Application. Failure to submit any required transcripts will result in the application being declared ineligible.

  • You must upload one unofficial academic transcript from each post-secondary institution from which a degree was received. Additional transcripts should be uploaded for coursework and grades not reflected on degree-granting transcripts.
  • Failure to provide a complete academic history of higher education will result in your being declared ineligible.
  • Graduate-level students who do not include undergraduate transcripts will be considered ineligible.
  • Candidates recommended for final consideration will be required to submit official copies of all college transcripts in March.
  • Consult the Transcript Upload Instructions page for more detailed information.
Ethical Requirements

Applicants proposing research involving human beings or animals as research subjects who plan to formally publish the results or to use the results in a graduate program should have their projects vetted by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at their home institutions. At-large applicants should conduct an individual ethics review ensuring that their proposed projects are consistent with ethical standards for research involving humans as research participants as outlined in the National Guidelines for Human Subjects Research (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Extramural Research, National Institutes of Health), in the National Guidelines for Animal Welfare at the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare or other applicable internationally recognized ethics guidance documents.

Human subjects research includes: clinical investigations (any experiment or study on one or more persons which involves a test product/article, whether a drug, treatment, procedure or device); social-behavioral studies which entail interaction with or observation of people, especially vulnerable populations (i.e., as minors, pregnant women, inmates, drug-users, the mentally impaired, displaced/refugee populations); and, basic scientific research to study the biology of animals, persons or organs and specimens thereof. The most fundamental issues in studies involving human research subjects include: valid scientific questions and approaches; potential social value; favorable risk-benefit ratio; fair selection of study participants and an adequately administered informed consent process.